June 8, 2013

White-winged Parakeet (Brotogeris versicolurus)

Old classification:
Canary-winged Parakeet (Brotogeris versicolurus versicolurus)

New classification:
White-winged Parakeet (Brotogeris versicolurus) = yellow and white on the wing span

Photo via animalphotos.me
White Wing Publications:
  • Brightsmith, Donald. "White-winged and Yellow-chevroned Parakeets" in Poole, A. and F. Gill, eds., The Birds of North America, No. 385-387, National Academy of Sciences, Philadelphia, PA, 1999.
  • Diamond, Jared M. and John W. Terborgh. "Observations on Bird Distribution and Feeding Assemblages Along the Rio Callaria, Deptment of Loreto, Peru," The Wilson Bulletin," (Sep. 1967) 79:273-282 (re: B. versicolorus: 276,280).
  • Leck, Charles F. "Observations of birds at Cecropia trees in Puerto Rico," The Wilson Bulletin," (Dec. 1972) 84:498-500 (re: B. versicolorus).
  • Also see the Yellow-chevroned Parakeet page. Canary-winged parakeets (now called Yellow-chevroned) and White-winged parakeets were often grouped together as the same bird, so many articles may be about both of these Brotogeris parakeets.

Yellow-Chevroned Parakeet (Brotogeris chiriri)

Old classification:
Canary-winged Parakeet (Brotogeris versicolurus chiriri)

New classification:
Yellow-chevroned Parakeet (Brotogeris chiriri) = yellow chevron mark on wing span (no white)

Photo via bib.ge
Print Resources:
Photo via dkimages.com
  • Arrowood, Patricia C. "Importation and Status of Canary-winged Parakeets (Brotogeris versicolorus) P.L.S. Muller) in California," in Conservation of New World Parrots (1981): 425-429.
  • "Back Talk: Canary Wings--They Love L.A.," Bird Talk, 19 (Sept. 2000): 4.
  • Brightsmith, Donald. "What Eats Parrots?" Bird Talk, Feb. 2000.
  • Brightsmith, Donald. "White-winged and Yellow-chevroned Parakeets" in Poole, A. and F. Gill, eds., The Birds of North America, No. 385-387, National Academy of Sciences, Philadelphia, PA, 1999.
  • Brightsmith, Donald. "Wild Science: Great Escapes: Canary-Winged Parakeet," Bird Talk, 19 (June 2000): 26-33.
  • "Dear Bird Breeder: Feral Flocks of Brotogeris," Bird Breeder, 67 (Feb. 1995): 8.
  • Davis, B. "Canary-wings Rear One Youngster," Cage and Aviary Birds, 18 (Jan. 1979): 6.
  • DeLucca, E.J., L.R. Shirley and C. Lanier. "Karyotype Studies in Twenty-two Species of Parrots (Psittaciformes: Aves)," Revista Brasileira de Genetica, 14 (1991): 73-98 (mentions Tui and canary wing).
  • Doolen, Mike and Nancy Doolen. "Ask the Experts: Psittacine Territoriality," Bird Talk, 8 (Aug. 1990): 22. (re: canary wing)
  • "Fancy Talk: Canary Wing Parakeets," Bird Talk, 5 (Jun. 1987): 87-88.
  • Gallerstein, Gary A. The Complete Bird Owner's Handbook, New York, NY: Macmillan Publishing Co. (1994): 276 (briefy mentions canary wing).
  • Gaskin, Jack M. "Herpesvirus Infections" in Companion Bird Medicine, ed. Elisha W. Burr, Ames, IA: Iowa State University Press (1987): 107-110 (canary wing: 109).
  • Harris, Robbie. "Breeding the Canary-Winged Parakeet," Bird Breeder, Oct. 1996, v. 68, no. 5, p. 24-27.
  • Harris, Robbie. "Canary Wings Revisited," Bird Breeder, 69 (Apr. 1997): 4.
  • Koepcke, Marie. The Birds of the Department of Lima, Peru, 2nd ed., Newtown Square, PA: Harwood Books, 1988: 75 (mentions canary wing).
  • Kricher, John C. A Neotropical Companion, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1989: 261 (canary wing) & 234-235 (orange chin).
  • Leck, Charles F. "Observations of birds at Cecropia trees in Puerto Rico," The Wilson Bulletin," (Dec. 1972) 84:498-500 (re: B. versicolorus).
  • Mizera, Richard. "Small Birds: Take Flight With the Canary Wing," Bird Talk, 20 (July 2002): p. 74-75.
  • Molenda, Sandee L. "The Affectionate Canary-winged Parakeet."
  • Morlan, Joe. "Feral Parrot Populations in San Francisco."
  • Navas, J.R. and N.A. Bo, N.A. "The Distribution of the Canary-winged Parakeet in Argentina," Hornero, 14 (1996): 90-92.
  • "The Next Box: Canary Winged Parakeets," Bird Talk, 7 (May 1989): 70.
  • Owre, Oscar T. "A Consideration of the Exotic Avifauna of Southeastern Florida," The Wilson Bulletin," (Dec. 1973) 85:491-500 (B. jugularis: 494, 502/: 492, 502,506-508).
  • Polinski, Yvonne. "Handling BeeBee," Bird Talk, 10 (Feb. 1992): 106-107 (re: canary wing).
  • Samuelson, Phillip. "Iquitos, Peru: A Bird Lover's Paradise," Bird Talk, 15 (April 1997): 30-32,34-38,40 (briefly mentions Tui & canary wing).
  • Skinner, Martin. The Proper Care of Parrots, Neptune City, NJ: T.F.H. Publications, Inc., 1992: 128-129 (canary-wing photo & caption).
  • VanDerHeyden, Nicole. "Avian Tuberculosis: Diagnosis and Attempted Treatment," Proceedings of the Association of Avian Veterinarians (1986): 203-214 (mentions grey cheek and canary wing).
  • Vane, E.N.T. "Breeding the Canary-winged Parrakeet (sic)," Avicultural Magazine, 60 (1954): 227-231.
  • Vriends, Matthew M. "Canary-Winged Parakeets and Other Brotogeris," American Cage-Bird Magazine, 62 (Oct. 1990): 58-59.
  • Wiley, James W., F.R. Noel, F.R. Synder; and Rosemarie S. Gnam "Reintroduction as a Conservation Strategy for Parrots" in New World Parrots in Crisis: Solutions from Conservation Biology, 1988: 168-171 (mentions canary wings).
  • Vriends, Matthew M. Simon & Schuster's Guide to Pet Birds, New York: Simon and Schuster, Inc., 1984 (canary wing: 170/orange chin: 171).

Orange-chinned Parakeet (Brotogeris jugularis)

The Orange-chinned Parakeet is also known as the Tovi parakeet or the Bee Bee parrot.

Photo via avconline.avc.edu
Publications mentioning Orange Chins:
Photo via safarickszoo.com
  • Brightsmith, Donald. "Nest sites of wild parrots," Bird Talk, Feb. 2000.
  • Callender, G.R. and J.S. Simmons. "Trichomoniasis (T. columbae) in the Java sparrow, Tovi parakeet and Verraux's dove," American Journal of Tropical Medical Hygiene, 17 (1937): 579-585.
  • Clark, George A., Jr. "Avian Bill-Wiping," The Wilson Bulletin," (Sep. 1970) 82:279-288 (re: B. jugularis: 282).
  • Harris, Robbie. "The Tovi Parakeet," A.F.A. Watchbird, 1 (1988): 61-63.
  • Hood, R. "Tovi Parrakeets (sic)," Foreign Birds, 27 (1961): 74-?.
  • Janzen, D.H. "Brotogeris Jugularis," in Janzen, D.H., Costa Rican Natural History, Chicago University Press: Chicago, 1984: 548-550.
  • Janzen, D.H. "Ficus ovalis seed predation by an orange-chinned parakeet (Brotogeris jugularis) in Costa Rica," Auk, 28 (1982): 841–844.
  • Kricher, John C. A Neotropical Companion, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1989: 261 (canary wing) & 234-235 (orange chin).
  • Kricher, John. "Neotropical Birds" in A Neotropical Companion, Chapter 12 [mentions orange chin].
  • Kroodsma, Donald E., Edward H. Miller, and Henri Ouellet, Eds. Acoustic Communications in Birds, "Song Learning and Its Consequences," vol. 2, Academic Press: New York (1982) (orange chin).
  • Kroodsma, Donald E. and Edward H. Miller, Eds. Ecology and Evolution of Acoustic Communication in Birds, Cornell University Press: Ithaca & London (1996): 115,401 (orange chin).
  • Martin, Thomas E. and James R. Karr. "Temporal Dynamics of Neotropical Birds with Special Reference to Frugivores in Second-Growth Woods," The Wilson Bulletin," (March 1986) 98:38-60 (B. jugularis).
  • Power, Dennis M. "Agonistic Behavior and Vocalizations of Orange-chinned Parakeets in Captivity," Condor, 68 (1966): 562-581.
  • Power, Dennis M. "Antiphonal Dueting and Evidence for Auditory Reaction in the Orange-chinned Parakeet," Auk, 83 (1966): 314-319.
  • Power, Dennis M. "Epigamic and Reproductive Behavior of Orange-chinned Parakeets in Captivity," Condor, 69 (1967): 28-41.
  • Vriends, Matthew M. Simon & Schuster's Guide to Pet Birds, New York: Simon and Schuster, Inc., 1984 (canary wing: 170/orange chin: 171).

Grey Cheek Cuisine

Ask the Experts: Grey Cheek Cuisine

by Gail Worth

Q. Our grey-cheeked parakeet's diet consists almost exclusively of vanilla wafers. We offer him various seeds, fresh fruits and vegetables, but all he really seems to eat are the wafers, which we realize are not a healthy diet. Could you please tell us how to get our picky eater to eat better?

A. Grey-cheeked parakeets definitely have a sweet tooth! Years ago, when I cared for several imported groups of baby grey cheeks, I discovered that they loved baked sweet potatoes or yams, platano bananas (the large, cooking bananas) and fresh papaya. The young, just-weaning grey cheeks ate these foods with gusto! As the birds weaned, I introduced budgie or cockatiel seed mix, spray millet, sliced apples, grapes and a variety of chopped fresh vegetables, including green beans, broccoli, yellow and green squash, and cucumbers. They ate everything in sight!

The problem you have with your grey cheek is that you are allowing the bird to dictate what it will and will not eat. Who's in charge here? You wouldn't allow a child to eat only cake and ice cream three times a day, would you? Take the vanilla wafers out of your bird's diet, and offer a variety of the goods mentioned above. Give the fruits and vegetables in the morning, and change them daily. Sprinkle a vitamin and mineral powder on your bird's soft foods, and vary the selection to keep your bird interested. Other foods, such as brown rice, boiled red wheat and lentils, and occasional tidbits of healthy table food, may interest your grey cheek. Finally, offer its seed mix in a separate dish.

Remember that avocado can be lethal to parrots, so don't offer guacamole to your pet. Keep it away from chocolate and other sweets, as well. Your bird should receive enough natural sugar in its new diet to satisfy its sweet tooth.

Article originally appeared in the September 1992 issue of Bird Talk. This is copyrighted material, reprinted with the author's permission. This article may not be reprinted without written consent from the author.